Международный клуб инноваторов СНГ: Measures of innovation

Measures of innovation

Rankings

Many research studies try to rank countries based on measures of innovation. Common areas of focus include: high-tech companies, manufacturingpatentspost secondary educationresearch and development, and research personnel. The left ranking of the top 10 countries below is based on the 2016 Bloomberg Innovation Index.[58] However, studies may vary widely; for example the Global Innovation Index 2016 ranks Switzerland as number one wherein countries like South Korea and Japan do not even make the top ten.[59]

Future

In 2005 Jonathan Huebner, a physicist working at the Pentagon's Naval Air Warfare Center, argued on the basis of both U.S. patents and world technological breakthroughs, per capita, that the rate of human technological innovation peaked in 1873 and has been slowing ever since.[60][61] In his article, he asked "Will the level of technology reach a maximum and then decline as in the Dark Ages?"[60] In later comments to New Scientist magazine, Huebner clarified that while he believed that we will reach a rate of innovation in 2024 equivalent to that of the Dark Ages, he was not predicting the reoccurrence of the Dark Ages themselves.[62]
John Smart criticized the claim and asserted that technological singularity researcher Ray Kurzweil and others showed a "clear trend of acceleration, not deceleration" when it came to innovations.[63] The foundation replied to Huebner the journal his article was published in, citing Second Life and eHarmony as proof of accelerating innovation; to which Huebner replied.[64] However, Huebner's findings were confirmed in 2010 with U.S. Patent Office data.[65] and in a 2012 paper.[66]

Innovation and international development

The theme of innovation as a tool to disrupting patterns of poverty has gained momentum since the mid-2000s among major international development actors such as DFID,[67]Gates Foundation's use of the Grand Challenge funding model,[68] and USAID's Global Development Lab.[69] Networks have been established to support innovation in development, such as D-Lab at MIT.[70] Investment funds have been established to identify and catalyze innovations in developing countries, such as DFID's Global Innovation Fund,[71] Human Development Innovation Fund,[72] and (in partnership with USAID) the Global Development Innovation Ventures.[73]

Government policies

Given the noticeable effects on efficiencyquality of life, and productive growth, innovation is a key factor in society and economy. Consequently, policymakers have long worked to develop environments that will foster innovation and its resulting positive benefits, from funding Research and Development to supporting regulatory change, funding the development of innovation clusters, and using public purchasing and standardisation to 'pull' innovation through.
For instance, experts are advocating that the U.S. federal government launch a National Infrastructure Foundation, a nimble, collaborative strategic intervention organization that will house innovations programs from fragmented silos under one entity, inform federal officials on innovation performance metrics, strengthen industry-university partnerships, and support innovation economic development initiatives, especially to strengthen regional clusters. Because clusters are the geographic incubators of innovative products and processes, a cluster development grant program would also be targeted for implementation. By focusing on innovating in such areas as precision manufacturinginformation technology, and clean energy, other areas of national concern would be tackled including government debtcarbon footprint, and oil dependence.[27] The U.S. Economic Development Administration understand this reality in their continued Regional Innovation Clusters initiative.[74] In addition, federal grants in R&D, a crucial driver of innovation and productive growth, should be expanded to levels similar to JapanFinlandSouth Korea, and Switzerland in order to stay globally competitive. Also, such grants should be better procured to metropolitan areas, the essential engines of the American economy.[27]
Many countries recognize the importance of research and development as well as innovation including Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT);[75] Germany’s Federal Ministry of Education and Research;[76] and the Ministry of Science and Technology in the People's Republic of China. Furthermore, Russia's innovation programme is the Medvedev modernisation programme which aims at creating a diversified economy based on high technology and innovation. Also, the Government of Western Australia has established a number of innovation incentives for government departments. Landgate was the first Western Australian government agency to establish its Innovation Program.[77] The Cairns Region established the Tropical Innovation Awards in 2010 open to all businesses in Australia.[78] The 2011 Awards were extended to include participants from all Tropical Zone Countries.